chapter  9
42 Pages

Leadership Processes and Work Motivation: Stephen J. Zaccaro, Katherine Ely, Johnathan Nelson

ByStephen J. Zaccaro, Katherine Ely, Johnathan Nelson

Leadership Processes: The Inputs to Work Motivation ............................ 324 Functional Perspectives of Motivating Leadership Activities ....... 327 Functional Leadership and Multilevel Outcomes............................ 330 Functional Leadership at Different Organizational Levels ............ 335

Leadership Processes and Multilevel Work Motivation........................... 338 Leadership and Individual Motivational Processes ........................ 339 Leadership and Team-Level Motivational Processes ...................... 343 Leadership and Organization-Level Motivation Processes............ 345

Conclusions ..................................................................................................... 347 References ....................................................................................................... 352

The critical contribution of motivational processes to work performance has been a core thesis in organizational psychology since its founding in the seminal Hawthorne studies by Mayo (1933) and Roethelisberger and Dickson (1939). These studies demonstrated the importance of contextual factors in the organization for shaping the direction and intensity of worker effort. While some theories of work motivation have cited individual differences (e.g., achievement and power needs, work ethic and values; Atkinson, 1964; Dose, 1997; McClelland, 1970; McClelland & Boyatzis, 1982) as the prime drivers of worker motivation, most have emphasized how the organizational context, either alone or jointly with personal characteristics, inuences the decisions and choices workers make in terms of effort direction and expenditure. For example, models of job characteristics

cite the dimensions and components of jobs as driving motivational outcomes (Hackman & Oldham, 1976, 1980). Cognitive choice models, such as expectancy theory (Porter & Lawler, 1968; Vroom, 1964) and equity theory (Adams, 1965), emphasize how evaluations of various contextual factors (e.g., reward structures, organizational resources, relative contributions of referent others) inuence effort decisions. Self-regulation models (Bandura, 1986; Carver & Scheier, 1998; Locke & Latham, 1990) describe how environmental contingencies shape decisions about the direction and intensity of effort expenditure (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989). Taken together, these theories, with their supporting empirical studies, provide convincing evidence that understanding work motivation requires a multilevel and ne-grained analysis of work context.