This essay examines the ways in which racism and sexism have energized the use of
American Indian imagery in sport. Speciﬁcally, it concentrates on the development and defence of Native American sports mascots, detailing the importance of crises within hegemonic formulations of masculinity and their relationships with the valuation of
women, the reinscription of racial privilege and the maintenance of tradition. It begins with a discussion of the history and signiﬁcance of Native American sports mascots,
before considering the importance of gender to their emergence and elaboration. On this foundation, it offers a critical reading of one strand of neo-conservative thought intent on
retaining stereotypical renderings of indigenous peoples in association with sports. In particular, it interprets writings of Dave Shiﬂett, Richard Poe and David Yeagley as
emblematic of the uses of racial and gender differences in the unfolding mascot controversy at the start of the twenty-ﬁrst century. In conclusion, it outlines the implications of placing gender and its articulation with race at discussion of American
Indian imagery in sport.