What do we know about policing in Israel? What lessons, based on empirical research, can be drawn from the experience of the Israel National Police (INP)? Israel has the potential to serve as a fascinating research laboratory for studying policing in a polarized, democratic society. The police in Israel have a special role because of the unique security situation, ethnic diversity, and significant political, religious, and cultural differences and tensions. At the same time, Israel is a democratic country where the police are obligated to protect civil rights and are restrained and regulated by law, and where an independent Supreme Court plays a dominant role. In turn, relying on empirical evidence when formulating policy and practice is expected to increase police effectiveness and to improve their relationships with the communities they serve (Bayley 1994; Sherman 1998; Weisburd and Braga 2006; Weisburd and Neyroud 2011; Welsh 2006).