chapter  5
Organizational Structure, Police Activity, and Crime
Pages 24

To enforce the law and prevent crime, the state must investigate crimes, adjudicate criminal cases, and house criminals upon conviction. These functions are typically undertaken, respectively, by three separate agencies: the Police, the Court, and the Prison Authority. However, these functions may be organized in a different manner. For instance, in adversarial legal systems the investigative and adjudicative functions are independent of each other, whereas in inquisitorial legal systems the Court is actively involved in investigating facts. Likewise, the investigative function and the function of housing criminal upon conviction may not be independent of each other, as in the case of military prisons, which are often operated by the military police. How do the organizational boundaries between law enforcement agencies affect their activities and crime?