Tactics to Sustain Training and Competitive Performance during Fasting
Concepts Underlying Modern Training Techniques Athletic training essentially involves a sequence of bouts of exhausting exercise, followed by adequate recovery periods, leading to a progressive increase in the individual’s competitive performance. The task-specic capacity of the athlete passes through three phases:
1. A phase of fatigue immediately following the training stimulus 2. A recovery (compensation) period that allows the restoration of initial
physical abilities 3. A phase of overcompensation, when the physical capacity exceeds the
Performance is not optimized unless the recovery period is adequate. Too rigorous training or a lack of adequate recovery particularly if it is coupled with fasting or dietary restriction, can lead to overreaching or even overtraining, with a marked deterioration in performance [38,42,55]. Training seeks to develop many body functions , including the alactic anaerobic, lactic anaerobic and aerobic systems, muscle strength, and coordination. Aerobic training enhances a competitor’s endurance and reduces fatigue during prolonged submaximal exercise. It is marked by increased glycogen stores, an enhanced activity of oxidative enzymes and a greater contribution of fat to submaximal metabolism. Anaerobic training is based on repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise. It is marked by increases of anaerobic power and capacity, with an increased activity of anaerobic enzymes, and the development of muscle mass with an increased proportion of fast-twitch bres.