Hydration and Fluid Restriction in Athletes
Introduction Total water deprivation may arise during certain emergencies such as a shipwreck or becoming lost in the desert and as a political manifestation or as a desire to end one’s life . Short-term water deprivation may be imposed by various means such as sauna exposure, exercising in extreme heat or the administration of diuretics in an attempt to qualify for a particular weight category in weight-classied sports. Finally, during Ramadan observance, uid intake is prohibited during daylight hours, leading to a progressive dehydration over the course of the day, and if unusually large volumes of uid are not ingested at night, a cumulative dehydration may develop over the 29 days of Ramadan. Some authors distinguish simple uid loss (which can increase plasma sodium ion concentrations) from uid loss with salt depletion.