Integrating Base-of-the- Pyramid business into global supply chains
In this chapter, we provide a critical discourse on how the literature characterizes the integration of Base-of-the-Pyramid (BoP) business into global supply chains (SCs) and its performance implications. In this regard, we use a structured review of the SC literature sourced through Web of Science and keyword classifications, such as base/bottom of the pyramid, poverty and supply chain. We find that discussions on integrating BoP business into SCs have a limited focus on the poor yet extensively covered materials, information, relational and financial manipulations required for such integration across the SC. Specifically, we identify partnership arrangements, support mechanisms, product adaptations, process innovations and financial facilitations as key themes in the literature. We observe that while a positive performance outcome of integrating BoP business has been reported in the literature, this tends to be assessed against economic (profitability) and social (poverty alleviation) metrics, ignoring environmental considerations.