The contribution of the Internet of Things to the emergence of sustainable innovative cities
Inefficient resource management in urban areas causes evident inequalities, poor quality of life and concern for the future of urban ecosystems that continue to grow and create challenges related to mobility, governance, economy, environment, people, and quality of life. Consequently, it is necessary to look for emerging technological solutions that have the potential to contribute to the sustainable growth of our cities. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies in the emergence of sustainable innovative cities. For this purpose, an embedded case study was used considering four IoT projects in the city of Porto. The results allowed us to identify that the creation of a technological infrastructure based on open standards, with an emphasis on interoperability and expandability, is fundamental for the development of IoT services. Furthermore, several challenges were identified in the development of sustainable IoT cities such as community participation in decisions, security and privacy, the complexity of the technological infrastructure, and the standardization of the technological process.