Lab-on-a-Chip-Based Devices for Rapid and Accurate Measurement of Nanomaterial Toxicity
This chapter provides a comprehensive perspective on the use of Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC) technology for nanotoxicity assessment. It also focuses on electrochemical and optical-based technologies. The chapter reports the fabrication of LoC devices with independently addressable microwell electrodes for high-throughput single-cell nanotoxicity studies. The device presents a novel model for single-cell assays of nanotoxicity and drug testing. An LoC is a class of device, measuring a maximum a few square centimetres in area, which has the capability to automate and integrate several laboratory techniques on a chip. In a microfluidic (MF) device, it is possible to mimic a natural (bio)-chemical processes inside a single chip, due to the ability to precisely control small volumes in chemical reactions. The goal of fabricating a LoC device is to bring a semi-automated, cost-effective, and portable platform to market, compared to its laborious competitors.