Numerous works have been carried out since the 1990s to apprehend and describe the reality and the scope of so-called “non-conventional” economic initiatives and organisations in Asian countries. A new research stream appeared around the emerging concept of “social enterprise” (SE) and the setting up of an informal research group on social enterprise in Eastern Asia in 2008, within the influential academic sphere of the EMES International Research Network. The scope and forms of the SE phenomenon in a given national context are sometimes considered to be closely connected to the type of welfare regime and the amount of social expenditure, and more particularly public social expenditure, in this context. The welfare regime is based on a growth-centred state and the subordination of all aspects of state policy to economic goals. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.