Models of Social Enterprise in South Korea
South Korea is probably one of the countries in the world that has gone the furthest in the promotion of social enterprise. This chapter traces the development of the concept of social enterprise over time and develops a typology of different forms of social enterprise in the Korean context. An unstable labour market situation influenced the emergence of social enterprise in Korea. The macro-level economic and social problems influenced the emergence of social enterprise initiatives. The local authorities started to use social enterprise to deal with local issues, such as the preservation of local employment, the promotion of local food, and the provision of social services in the areas of health, ageing, housing and education, among other fields. The “meta-model” represents a national dominant conception or a consensual view of social enterprise, with a strong structuring power and an ability to satisfy and inspire different perspectives. Local self-sufficiency centres themselves tend to evolve into a social enterprise model.