The Pathobiology of Feline Caliciviruses
Caliciviruses are so named because of the characteristic morphology of cup-like depressions on the virion surface. These viruses were formerly classified as a genus of the family Picornaviridae. Virus neutralization, complement fixation, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation have all been used in the serological investigation and classification of caliciviruses. Feline caliciviruses have given extensive cross-neutralization reactions making designation of serotypes difficult. The Caliciviridae are a virus family of expanding importance as they are recognized in an increasing number of species. Progress in the control of Feline caliciviruses (FCV) disease has been made with commercial vaccines, but the problem of the strain heterogeneity has not been fully overcome. Cultivation of FCV is readily achieved in primary, secondary, and continuous cell cultures derived from domestic cats and lion kidney. Experimental FCV infections have been investigated using a variety of routes of inoculation. The lesions of FCV pneumonia have been compared and contrasted with those of nitrogen dioxide toxicity and of human influenza.