The developing countries that are not fortunate enough to be oil producers are faced with energy needs that are growing more and more difficult to meet. Primarily dependent on oil for industrial growth and agricultural development, they have been hard hit by oil price increases. Most of the energy-related assistance that has been provided the less developed countries to-date has focused attention on urban/industrial-sector requirements. Only recently have development-assistance organizations focused attention on the needs of the rural areas. The choice of energy technology made by developing countries will have a long-term impact on their development that is more widespread and significant than that of any other technological choice currently facing them. The history of the semiconductor industry has shown that labor-intensive fabrication can be economically performed in developing areas. Brazil is currently engaged in a coherent, long-range program to make use of its vast resources to supply the increasing needs of its long-term development goals.