Obstacles to linkages between R and D activities and the production system
This chapter reviews the research and development (R&D) approaches taken in the last decade or two by the developing countries generally, and highlights the problems encountered. It examines some of the variables whose presence may promote the reinforcement of linkages between R and D activities and the production system, especially those variables dealing with national policy and financing measures. In the case of developing countries, experience to date shows that whenever it was felt necessary to create an R and D system capable of efficient integration with the production system, it was created on the same general principles and structure as those existing in developed countries. There are several types of incentives that have been successfully utilized in developed countries to foster R and D and to ensure its optimal linkage to the production system. The institutional arrangements and mechanisms for providing the protection or support are presently lacking in most developing African countries.