This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book focuses on Zhang Junmai suggests that the failure to unite may have stemmed from the clash of personalities and egos, rather than incompatible ideologies-a conclusion that makes sense considering the predominance of personal networks and relationships over organization and ideology in the opposition movements. It shows that Deng Yanda despised Western-style liberals, and examines the Political Consultative Conference's ideals but operated like secret societies; spoke of democracy but protected their special interests. The book argues that Chinese Youth Party's members were caught between modern politics and Chinese tradition, or "frozen in time". Many educated Chinese rejected both of the one-party dictatorships, and some chose to found or support alternative parties or movements. The opposition movements also suffered from financial debility. It took money to found parties, establish schools to train members of their organizations, and publish newspapers and journals.