The Chinese Anarchist Critique of Bolshevism During the 1920s
This chapter analyses the Chinese anarchists' response to the introduction of Bolshevism to China. Through their knowledge of the history of anarchism in Europe, Chinese anarchists were predisposed to criticize the Marxist movement from its beginnings in China. The chapter focuses on the ideas or theoretical points presented by the anarchists, rather than on any political or organizational effort they made to counter their Marxist rivals. Huang Lingshuang, one of the most active anarchists, wrote what appears to be the earliest anarchist response to the revolution in Russia. The most important single debate over the relative merits of Marxism and anarchism, which involved Ou Shengbai and Chen Duxiu, took place in Guangzhou in early 1921. Anarchists and anarchist ideas played a major role in the labor organizing, at least through the early 1920s. Anarchism holds particular appeal for socially conscious intellectuals as a plan for ideal development in society.