The Third Force in Hong Kong and North America During the 1950s
In 1952, a secret organization named the Fighting League for Chinese Freedom and Democracy (FL) appeared in Hong Kong. The key documents of the FL were the "Proclamation of the Fighting League" by Zhang Junmai, the "Outline of the League's Organization during the Preparation Period" by Tong Guanxian and Li Weichen, the "General Rules of the League," and the "General Rules for a League Member's Life Style" by Zhang Guotao. The Proclamation was the most important of these. It was a declaration of the League's political objectives and expressed its political viewpoints and social ideals. The FL was first organized with American support. According to Zhang Fakui's reminiscences, while he was in Hong Kong in 1950 the former president of Lingnan University, Dr. James McClure Henry, came to see him and inquire about anti-communist guerrilla activities on the mainland.