The Trials of a Third-Force Intellectual: Zhang Junmai (Carsun Chang) During the Early Nanjing Decade, 1927-1931
This chapter examines Zhang Junmai's "third force" position by describing his clash with the Reorganized Guomindang (GMD) in 1927, as well as his strong opposition to both Chinese and Soviet Communism. It explores his struggle for survival from 1927-1929, which partly took the form of cooperation with another persecuted group, the Chinese Youth Party. The chapter deals with his mysterious kidnapping, which convinced him that Shanghai was too dangerous, and his second period of exile in Germany during the period 1929-1931. It aims to restore to the pages of history the story of one politically active scholar during the early Nanjing Decade, in hopes that it will give flesh and bones to abstractions about "persecuted intellectuals" under GMD rule. At first glance, Zhang's story appears a straightforward one. He stood for the right--democracy--and was suppressed by the GMD for daring to oppose its political tutelage.