China’s Minority Parties in the People’s Political Council, 1937-1945
Intellectual interest in democracy and parliamentary government had a late start in China's modern history. It was defeat by Japan in 1895 which generated interest among scholars and officials in seeking the reform of China's political institutions. This chapter provides a brief account of the main political activities of China's minority parties and groups (MPG) during the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937-1945. With the outbreak of full-scale hostilities between China and Japan in July and August 1937, the Nanjing Government urgently needed national unity and the wholehearted allegiance of the Chinese people. During the first years of its existence, the most important issues in the People's Political Council (PPC) were how best to maintain China's national unity and continue the war effort, in the life-or-death struggle against overwhelming odds. During the war China's MPGs had heterogeneous backgrounds and varied political persuasions. The PPC was created to maintain unity in the country and increase China's resistance to Japanese aggression.