Nationalism in the Romanian Military: Ceausescu’s Double-Edged Sword
Nicolae Ceausescu’s intent to chart a course based upon nationalist traditions was reflected in the implementation of educational reforms which had an impact on language and history, the cultural bases of nationalism. The Ninth Congress of the Romanian Communist Party, held in June 1965, resulted in a rejection of the Soviet-dominated educational system and a return, in many cases, to the excellent prewar forms of instruction and administration. The themes of the Ceausescu era in international relations are identical to the themes espoused by other nationalists from small countries, including a heavy emphasis on sovereignty, independence, and noninterference in internal affairs. In 1970, the Center for the Study and Research of Military History and Theory was established. The President’s brother, Col General Ilie Ceausescu, is a frequent contributor to the publications of that institution. The consistent appeal to nationalism aimed at the military mirrors Ceausescu’s effort in the nonmilitary sectors as well.