Strategic Missile Forces and Cosmic Research
Soviet strategic missile forces and cosmic research are of great importance in the context of Soviet military power, for they have given the Soviets strategic parity vis-a-vis the United States. By 1957 the Soviets had orbited the first earth satellite, and they displayed medium-range ballistic missiles during the celebrations honoring the fortieth anniversary of the October revolution. Oleg Penkovsky and from satellite reconnaissance, the United States had indeed reappraised Soviet nuclear-missile strength downward. The military and political significance of Soviet efforts in the areas of ballistic missilery and cosmic research will to some degree depend upon the political mood in the United States. Along with an offensive missile program, the Soviets were developing an anti-ballistic missile program. In November 1963 they paraded in Red Square the surface-to-air missile known as Griffon, which they claimed was capable of destroying missiles.