Pollution from Land-Based Sources
Before discussing the law and practice relating to pollution of the seas from land-based sources, certain facts should be stated. In the case of land-based pollution, one is inevitably required to consider problems which are of an essentially territorial nature, and are governed ultimately by the detailed internal legislation of individual sovereign States, that legislation being inescapably an integral part of national law. The Convention gives examples of fields of co-operation which include water pollution and fresh water utilisation; and protection of the marine environment. In a number of countries where there is a high density of total population combined with very rapid, industrial growth, control of pollution has been extremely difficult. The problems presented by the older and advanced industrial economies provide the useful and major topic for commentary in regard to land-based marine pollution. Turning to matters of land-based marine pollution as such, it is convenient to deal first briefly with the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972.