India and China
India and China are equally cognisant of the economic growth prospects of cyberspace, and vigilant of its security risks at the same time. Their institutional responses, tech-policy initiatives, and international and regional diplomatic engagements are aimed at defending critical infrastructure and building resilient information infrastructure, interlacing those policies with a heavy accent on technology innovation. Their capacity to respond to national cyber emergencies is under researched, untested, and unproven. The chapter compares the outlook of the two countries towards cyber contingencies, shaped by their respective threat perceptions and visions for the future of cyberspace. It also examines the impact of fundamental differences in their security and political systems on their policies and strategies related to cybersecurity in general, and human capital development in particular. The chapter further delves into the preparedness of these two Asian powers in the face of a “cyber storm”, taking into account their policy initiatives and institutional responses. It concludes that the preparedness of the two countries could be assessed as low to moderate.