Civil defence and cyber security
Civil defence easily translates into concepts of comprehensive security in contemporary European thinking—especially since cybersecurity, defence, and national security considerations alike all rest on broad-based societal awareness, preparedness, and participation. This broad-based participation is central to the security of information and communication technologies, and to managing cyber incidents. This chapter puts in perspective the latest trends in EU cybersecurity regulation and highlight two formulas for integrating the civil entities into national and international cybersecurity efforts. The Estonian Cyber Defence League story serves as an example of a cyber-centric approach, whereas in Finland cyber is demonstrably an (essential) aspect in a comprehensive, systemic approach to societal safety and security.