Self-Initiated Expatriate Adjustment Over Time
This chapter explores the notion of adjustment and the processes of adjustment over time for all expatriates; then, given that almost all that research is drawn from assigned expatriates (AEs). It addresses the often-neglected element of time in the development of cross-cultural adjustment. While there is some existing evidence regarding patterns of adjustment over time among AEs, there is little agreement regarding the average time points in the adjustment process. The chapter focuses on the differences between self-initiated expatriates and AEs may be, in terms of the timings and processes of adjustment, considering their different motivations to work abroad, involvement in the preparation of the move, potential facilitators of adjustment during the experience in the host country, and future career motivations. It discusses the multidimensionality of adjustment, considering the three different dimensions advanced by Haslberger et al.: cognitive, affective, and behavioural.