Environmental Crime and Enforcement
This chapter presents a literature review in green criminology and environmental crime, specifically including environmental crimes committed by corporations. It provides a comparison of environmental law as enforced in three legal cultures: the United States, India, and Germany. The chapter looks at the literature on white-collar crime which is applicable to green criminology. It aims to establish the essential differences in the legislation, and data on crimes in each country. The chapter attempts to infer the relationship between criminal enforcement and air quality, through analysis of the available data. It discusses the extant theories in green criminology and corporate liability in environmental offenses. An important inference is that India is not just the only developing country in the set, and therefore the only one not having achieved its air quality goals, but its visible paucity of data on environmental crimes is possibly illustrative of a weaker enforcement regime overall.