Issues and Challenges in Sustainable Solid Waste Management
Sustainable solid waste management (SSWM) is the practice of waste management according to the ideal hierarchy where prevention is most preferred followed by 3R (reuse, recycle, and recover), and the least preferred option is landfilling. Globally, 22approximately 1.3 billion tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) was disposed of in some form of landfill (Kaza et al., 2018). Therefore, achieving SSWM has been a challenge for every country, although the challenges may vary from one country to another. Developed countries are trying to increase recycling and energy recovery through incineration and pyrolysis and reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills in the European Union (EU). On the other hand, majority of developing countries are struggling to cut down open dumping and move towards sanitary landfills along with increasing the overall national recycling rates. The amount of attention sustainable waste management receives depends on the economic status of each country.