Municipal Solid Waste Management in Two Cities of Palestine
The major sources of solid wastes in the West Bank are domestic wastes, industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, and medical wastes. The current management of solid wastes could have caused severe environmental problems to the groundwater, the soil, and the air. The awareness of rapid population growth and expected development in the industrial and agricultural sectors has called for immediate attention to avoid a hazardous situation (ARIJ, 1996; Al-Khateeb et al., 2017). The Palestinian hazardous waste list has been established in 2014, which is important for setting up a hazardous waste management system (Al-Jabari, 2014). This list presents the categories and items of the hazardous wastes in Palestine (Al-Jabari, 2015). Since the establishment of the Ministry of Environment (Environmental Quality Authority) in 1998, the Ministry has been managing an inherited vulnerable environmental situation that has become a serious problem in Palestine. Furthermore, the persistent Israeli occupation of the West Bank, the colonial expansion, and the restrictions of movement and access for local people and goods have led to a significant decline in the Palestinian economy, with adverse impacts on solid waste management (SWM). The Ministry of Local Government (MoLG) have made several achievements and adopted several relevant laws, legislations, and strategic plans to achieve integrated solid waste management (ISWM) in Palestine. For example, the MoLG has launched the National Strategy for SWM (2010–2014), developed a charging system, and planned and constructed two Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) sanitary landfills; the first one to serve the northern governorates, named Zahrat Al-Finjan landfill, and the second one to serve the southern governorates, named Al-Minya landfill (SWEEP-NET, 2014). In 2017, the MoLG had launched a new national strategy for SWM (2018–2022), in which more attention had been given to public–private participation and recycling of solid waste. It has specifically mentioned that the private sector is welcomed to take initiatives and actively participate in the waste management itself, or contribute to the development of waste management systems that will include recycling and energy generation (Saadeh et al., 2019).