chapter  9
21 Pages

Hydrothermal Liquefaction

A Sustainable Solution to the Sewage Sludge Disposal Problem
WithSaqib Sohail Toor, Federica Conti, Ayaz Ali Shah, Tahir Hussain Seehar, Lasse Aistrup Rosendahl

Sewage sludge (SS) is a product of modern society, as wastewater treatment has been implemented following a growing awareness of hygiene and water management issues. SS management has evolved from merely disposal of sludge in landfills 144or on agricultural soil to become a key component in a circular economy for organic and inorganic materials. Highlighted by the increasing urbanization seen in Europe with more than 70% of the population living in urban areas and many other places in the world, aggregated SS is challenged not only by the sheer volumes of biohazardous sludge to treat, but also by the legislative requirements to reuse of fertilizer components (phosphates) as well as to disposal methods [1–3].