Nanocellulose From Banana Pseudostem: Its Characterization and Application
Acid hydrolysis and ultrasound showed itself to be a better way of nanocellulose development. Isolation of cellulose was done from pseudostem powder by giving ultrasound and cellulose was converted to nanocellulose. Nanocellulose is a reinforcing agent applied in development of biodegradable foam/film. Nanocellulose with PVA film (NP) and nanocellulose with PVA, starch, and glycerol (NSG) film are developed at different concentrations of nanocellulose, that is, 5%, 7%, and 10%; and mechanical property, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), moisture content, thickness, X-ray power diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and biodegradability tests are done to examine the best combination. Results show that 5% NP and 5% NSG has maximum mechanical property and minimum WVTR, crystalline property increased and thermal degradation temperature also increased. NP and NSG films were compared with PVA control film. However, moisture barrier of the film increased up to 5% but after that it decreased. Mechanical property also increased with the increase of nanocellulose 156but it decreased the concentration of nanocellulose by more than 5%. Transparency decreases with increase of nanocellulose: it is more than 80% in case of NP but NSG transparency decreases due to addition of starch, nanocellulose, and glycerol by more than 50%. Application of the film in the storage study of black grapes and its effect have been examined on the basis of pH, weight loss, total soluble solid (TSS), TA, color, hardness, and microbial contamination. Result shown that pH increases with the increase in temperature. At 4°C, grapes weight loss up to 12 days is less than 5%, but at 27°C, weight loss is up to 8 days and is less than 5%. No bacteria, mould, and yeast growth is seen in the fruit to up to 12 days of study at 4°C and at 27°C, bacteria growth was (2.6 log cfu/mL) 4 cfu in 10−1 dilution. Mould and yeast growth at 27 °C was (4 log cfu/mL) 1 at 10−1 and (2.6 log cfu/mL, 4 log cfu/mL) 4 at 10−1 and 1 at 10−3 respectively. TA depends on the packaging type and mainly it increases at low temperature and decreases at high temperature. TSS increases at low temperature but decreases at high temperature. Hardness of grapes decreases during storage study from 12N to 9N and the rate of decrease is very less when at 4°C. Change in color is very less at 4 °C and 27 °C, but at PVA film, change in color is maximum 9.5, 11.34. 1% wt. Nanocellulose with 10%wt PVA, starch, CaCO3, HCl was added for the development of biodegradable foam. Water uptake, SEM, and XRD analysis are done to check the quality of foam. Biodegradable foam water uptake is more and more porous and increases the crystallinity percentage.