Polyphenol Nanoformulations for Cancer Therapy: Role of Milk Components
Cancer is a life-threatening malignancy and a serious health problem that we are facing today. Existing cancer therapeutical measures have restrictions such as dissatisfying specificity, low drug concentration at the target site, and numerous undesirable/off-target toxic side effects. Therefore, we should consider an alternate potential treatment technique with least adverse effects. Cancer prevention/cure with phytochemicals is an emerging strategy. Polyphenols, with their cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-neoplastic, and immunomodulatory effects is a promising phytochemical in the prevention and treatment of several disorders including cancer. Polyphenol-nanoformulations were designed for epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), resveratrol (RSV), curcumin, quercetin, chrysin, honokiol, baicalein, silibinin, luteolin, and derivatives of coumarin, based on the dosages and improved efficiency. The most limiting factor of polyphenols is its inadequate bioavailability. Different formulations have been designed to improve its bioavailability, and nanoformulations are one of the most notable approaches among these. An understanding of the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties of polyphenol-nanoformulations and its molecular mechanism as an anticancer agent is crucial in strategizing future therapeutical measures. The impact of polyphenol-nanoformulations on cancer cells has achieved an immense consideration due to its improved-targeted therapy, bioavailability, and enhanced stability. Various types of nanoformulations currently developed for the delivery of polyphenolic 124compounds include liposomes, gold nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, nanosuspensions, solid-lipid nanoparticles, and so on. Nanoformulations using milk complexes have found wide applications as it increases the retention and enhances the bioactivity and bioavailability of the polyphenols.