Migration and income inequality
This chapter explores migration from rural Uttar Pradesh, one of the most underdeveloped states and a state with high male out-migration among all states in India (National Sample Survey Organisation). Migration often is an outcome of many factors such as underdevelopment, lack of employment opportunities, stagnant agriculture, lack of basic facilities and so on. Along with the above-mentioned reasons, migration decisions can also be attributed to existing income inequalities among rural households. Various studies on migration and income inequality show that relationship between migration and income inequality is not straightforward, whereas the new economics-of-labour migration approach opines that migration and income inequality are positively related. Migration via remittances reduces income inequality in origin areas (Rivera and Jorge, 2005). In this context, this chapter analyses the relationship between migration and income inequality in rural Uttar Pradesh. Brief profiling of migrant households has been discussed as well. To meet the objective, the study undertakes a primary survey of 370 households in six villages of Jaunpur district in Uttar Pradesh. Simple statistical tools and the Gini co-efficient have been used to analyse relationship between migration and income inequality.