chapter  4
Europe
WithCass R. Sunstein, Lucia A. Reisch
Pages 19

In this chapter, the authors focus on the main results of the analysis of the frequencies regarding approval/disapproval for individual nudges by country. They provide the results of surveys in six nations in Europe: Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and the United Kingdom. Like Americans, people in the covered European countries also reject a nudge that is unambiguously manipulative: a subliminal advertising campaign in movie theaters, designed to convince people not to smoke and overeat. With respect to nudging, the authors have not found high levels of distrust of government. But it might well be expected that European nations, with their different cultures and traditions, would show markedly different kinds of reactions and perhaps greater receptivity. On the basis of parliamentary groups represented in the European Parliament as well as expert advice, the authors grouped the political parties into six clusters: conservative/ Christian democratic; left wing/socialist/communist; liberal; green; populist; and “other.”