Bioreactor Sensing and Monitoring for Cell Therapy Manufacturing
Bioreactors have become an inherent technology for the expansion of stem cell populations destined for cell therapy applications. Although bioreactors improve process controllability and minimize human intervention during complex expansion and differentiation kinetics, suboptimal use of sensor technologies for monitoring and control still limits the potential of this technology. The lack of extracting quantitative information, as provided by sensors, on a series of factors hinders rational bioprocess design and the implementation of robust bioreactor production. Therefore, the implementation of appropriate process analytical technology (PAT) tools in bioreactors, depending on their design and mode of operation, is essential. This chapter presents a number of sensing and monitoring tools available for bioreactor implementation. The incorporation of monitoring technologies in or around these bioreactors systems is a logical continuation of the industrialization of the cell culture process since it is a necessary precondition of providing confidence in the manufacturing process. Finally, the use of time-series data from diverse sensors that could allow predictive model-based control allowing robust bioreactor operation, is also discussed.