In order to contribute to the Paris Agreement, Austria has to initiate a tipping point towards more energy efficiency and a full transition to renewable energy. But beyond efficiency measures and ‘fuel-switching’, industrial process emissions – which currently account for nearly 10% of EU greenhouse gas emissions – must also be addressed. One option to tackle process emissions is to replace current processes by new low-carbon processes (or technologies); however, such a fundamental technology switch might involve substantial risks and uncertainties for both the industries at stake and for society.
The iron and steel sector serves as an example for such a process emission intensive industry, which faces particular challenges in decarbonising future production. As it is a relatively large sector in Austria, it is the focus of the Austrian narrative. If the Austrian iron and steel sector switches to process emission free technologies, this would increase renewable electricity demand dramatically. Consequently, transition pathways for the electricity supply sector and increasing demand for renewable energy in other sectors have to be considered as well.
This chapter aims at providing deep stakeholder insights about risks and uncertainties along the transition pathways as a result of mutual learning from scientists and stakeholders.