Following political changes in Zambia, the government enunciated policy reforms in the health industry, with particular reference to the publicly-minded health sector. These reforms involve a major reorganisation of the industry in line with the dominant liberal philosophy of the government. This chapter provides a preliminary evaluation of the reforms being undertaken, and to assess the capacity and prospects of the institutions to provide good quality medical care so that the greatest number of people benefit from health services; appropriate measures are suggested in an effort to strengthen health care delivery to the public. It examines the background to the development of the health industry and the guiding philosophy. The chapter outlines the philosophy, principles, practice and proposed plans of the new health reforms. It explores the constraints on the attainment of the objectives of reforms given surveys of hospitals and other research.