Coastal areas are under pressure from environmental harm, climate change, development-related encroachments and degradation of marine resources, which are leading to loss of livelihoods for fishing communities. Encroachments over coastal spaces are also leading to power conflicts among fishing communities, and smaller fishermen are becoming marginalised and more vulnerable in a gradual, but ever-increasing manner. The Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) is an area which provides livelihoods to local inhabitants by providing goods and services. The following case studies were selected to assess the environmental as well as livelihood impacts from CRZ violations across the region: Cuffe Parade Collaba, Sewri creek, Thane-Mulund creek and Uran Koliwada. These areas were selected on the basis of their different environmental and social characteristics and on the level of intensity of CRZ violations. These cases brought out issues facing fishing communities, including conflicts, their resistance, contestations and impacts on livelihood as well as sustainability of coastal ecology.