Operationalizing Public Diplomacy
This chapter, a revision of the 2009 version, begins with a look back at the original purpose and function of public diplomacy born out of the total war period of the early Cold War years. It describes how public diplomacy transformed from an active and holistic engagement into a passive practice based on emotions as part of a US re-election campaign. This is followed by two sections that form the heart of this chapter. The first is an overview of the importance of information in modern conflict and the second is recommendations to operationalize public diplomacy so that it sits between and informs both strategy and tactics. The author concludes that the operationalization of public diplomacy has not improved in the last decade.