Turkey’s Public Diplomacy in Flux
Turkey is a relative newcomer to public diplomacy but has slowly built its infrastructure to conduct its global outreach. Turkey’s public diplomacy initially emerged from its ascendance in global affairs in the mid-2000s showcasing its progress, building bridges, and transitioning to reactive communication together with the recurring political crises. Turkey’s recent efforts under public diplomacy, particularly post-coup attempt in 2016, place an emphasis on crisis communication and shaping the conversation about Turkey. Furthermore, the domestic dimension became an integral part of Turkey’s public diplomacy shaping its international communication at the time of democratic backsliding. This chapter provides an overview of Turkey’s public diplomacy during political reforms and crash landings.