Energy Security in the EU
Energy markets are undergoing a transition. Energy mixes are shifting towards lower carbon alternatives driven by international environmental commitments and technology innovation. Since the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) conferred in 2009 shared competence between the Union and the Member States (MS), energy and environmental policies have become an essential remit for the EU. With an overall EU energy import volume that accounts for more than half of its total energy consumption, energy security is at the core of the European Union policy. Currently, the EU is confronted with a wide range of complex and contentious issues that pose a challenge to energy security. Some of these issues fall beyond the realm of geopolitics and economics. The uncertainty and the various risks arising from both current and future changes in the energy markets should be managed appropriately. However, remarkable structural differences in national energy markets and differing (pragmatic) interests among MS may cause reluctance to let energy national interests converge in order to achieve common European aims. This chapter provides a comprehensive understanding of relevant current issues, which the EU will have to tackle in the coming years. The chapter concludes with brief remarks on a desirable future landscape in which progress towards convergence within the EU and the avoidance of any mistrust should facilitate reliable interdependence relations with energy suppliers and further third countries.