Non-transference elements in group analytic psychotherapy*
Group therapy began at the point where Freud left off. Freud's philosophical background was based on the Cartesian dichotomy of the pure cogito, soul, spirit, or mind (in this instance the psychoanalyst) observing matter (the patient); two totally distinct substances. The "first scientific revolution" of Descartes and Newton liberated physics from the dead hand of the scholastics, from anthropomorphism, but it took three centuries before the intangible data of the submicroscopic world, of psychology and sociology, could be accommodated by a new model in the philosophy of science and that has been nicknamed the second scientific revolution. Foulkes' ideas from the beginning were based on the concept that all psychodynamics are originally multi-personal, at the very least two-personal, and refer ultimately to the group and are primarily group phenomena. The group situation, in other words, introduces new features of its own which are not present in the individual situation between one therapist and one patient.