A viable transportation system is a crucial part of a sustainable energy future. Sustainable transportation is a complex interdisciplinary topic, which really deserves a book (or books) unto itself. As Schiller et al.  have written in introducing their book, “sustainable transportation aims at promoting better and healthier ways of meeting individual and community needs while reducing the social and environmental impacts of current mobility practices.” They note that technical factors, such as improved vehicle efficiency or traffic flow management, are only part of the solution. Transportation and land-use planning, policy, economics, and citizen involvement are also critical dimensions. This chapter focuses on alternative motorized vehicle technologies and fuels used for personal mobility, as they are most closely tied to the other topics covered in this book. We provide only a brief introduction to the broader dimensions of sustainable transportation and suggest additional reading for interested readers.