This chapter examines a grouping within the Australian Far Left known as ‘the Maoists’, which emerged during the 1960s and 1970s. Drawn from or affiliated with the Communist Party of Australia (Marxist-Leninist), the Maoists were inspired by the example of Chinese Communism and Mao Tse Tung thought. The Maoists were part of the Australian Far Left’s wider social movement against the Vietnam War and military conscription. However, the Maoists were most influential in the state of Victoria, primarily among certain trade unions and on specific university campuses. This chapter explores the trajectory of Maoism in Australia – how it came into being, the reasons for its establishment and growth, and its eventual decline.