Commercial aviation is one of the world’s largest industries, and safe operations require dedicated professionalism as well as co-ordination between a wide range of professionals including pilots, air traffic controllers, maintenance engineers, dispatchers, managers, cabin crew, healthcare personnel, as well as many others. Regional growth, such as in Asia and the Middle East, may fuel occupational mobility among pilots and draw pilots away from their home country, thereby creating shortages in some regions and countries. Pilots are increasingly selected not only for their flying ability but also for how they fit within an organization or company. Their ability to work within the culture of the organization is valued as highly as their flying record and piloting potential or skills. Mental health and stability, personality and cognitive performance are increasingly relevant in the pilot assessment and recruitment process. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.