Into Space European Astronaut Selection and Space Flight Participant Selection
The psychological selection of European astronauts follows a select-in approach with the aim of identifying candidates with characteristics and abilities that are optimally suited for fulfilling the duties of an astronaut. In 1977/1978, the first European astronaut selection took place in order to find astronaut scientists as payload specialists for the first Spacelab mission. Traditionally, the only way for humans to fly to space was to be part of an official national or international space flight program funded by governmental resources. In 2016, a commercial space flight campaign was initiated in Germany by the company Helicopter Emergency Space to promote female astronauts in space and to inspire girls and women to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. The space flight and short-term visit to the ISS is scheduled in 2020 to promote women in space and to collect scientific data on reactions of the female body to zero gravity.