The citizens and governments of the newly developing countries learn to live with the effects of pervasive economic dependence upon the industrial powers. Foreign governments and businessmen often determine the rate and scope of local capital investment, the development and use of economic resources, the composition and direction of external trade. Economic independence is a broadly accepted nationalist ideal; a patriotic national leadership will always seek to indigenise economic power. The most common political device for dominant-class consolidation in Africa has been authoritarian government. Subjective identification, or consciousness of class, is the expression for what people think about their own class position and the positions of others. The methodology of class analysis includes both subjective and objective identification. Class analysis attributes social solidarity to social inequality and domination. Class action may be analysed into various forms; these include class formation, consolidation, collaboration, and struggle.