The term curriculum-based assessment (CBA) is frequently used to refer to a particular set of approaches derived from behavioural psychology. In curriculum based assessment (CBA) the pupils performance is compared in an on-going way to each new set of curriculum demands as they are presented in the classroom. This contrasts with: norm-referenced assessment where the pupil's performance is compared to that of the group of pupils on whom the test was standardized and criterion-referenced assessment where the pupil's performance in each area assessed by the test is compared to a stated criterion or level of mastery. Cultural bias is apparent in tests where a significant proportion of the items may be outside the cultural experience, customs or values of particular groups of children. The working group focused on curriculum-based assessment with bilingual pupils but the principles are widely generalizable.