Prosperity theology signifies one the most contentious concepts in contemporary global Christianity. In widely shared apprehension, prosperity theology epicentres on material wealth combined with physical and bodily well-being. Commonly also referred to as the gospel of “health and wealth,” prosperity theology crafts this-worldly success and individual well-being as outward signs of divine grace. The chapter reconstructs the genealogy of prosperity theology and traces its breakthrough within a post-Second World War subculture of the American Pentecostal movement. Besides the historical genealogy, the chapter presents the basic hermeneutical design of prosperity theology and alludes to local diversities and adaptations. The evaluation of the prosperity message as coined in Pentecostal theology refers to the foundational ecumenical critique and draws attention to widening social ambitions of the prosperity movement.