The fight against and prevention of corruption
Many legislative changes have been implemented in most Western, third world and Eastern European countries with the intent to curb corruption. Multinational organisations have put tremendous efforts in preventing corruption, most notably the initiative of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development to criminalise foreign bribery. Switzerland has one of the most export-oriented economies. In Switzerland, 29.5% of the Gross Domestic Product is produced by exportations to other countries. Studies on corruption have largely discussed the definition of all forms of corruption and corrupt practices. Even though numerous, literature on corruption has remained an overview and compilation of legal approaches, leaving policymakers without insights into the efficiency of anti-corruption interventions. Case studies at the country-level are also often used to evaluate anti-corruption interventions. For instance, T. Gong and A. M. Wu studied the case of China and found that corruption increased sharply between 1999 and 2008 despite salary increases.