Before- and After-School Interventions in Youth Physical Activity
Babey, Wu, and Cohen identified four types of school-based approaches aimed at increasing physical activity (PA) participation in youth: extending the school day to provide 60 minutes of regular Physical Education provision, short in-class PA breaks, before-school programs, and after-school programs. This chapter is concerned with the latter of these identified approaches, namely, before- and after-school interventions. In order to heighten our understanding of the complexity associated with youth PA participation behaviors, the Theory of Expanded, Extended, and Enhanced Opportunities (TEO) presents a common taxonomy, by which appropriate intervention targets in children and youth can be identified, across different settings and contexts. This chapter regards before- and after-school programs, the proposed TEO model may contribute to the future design of intervention studies lead to a greater impact on youth PA behavior. The systematic review, meta-analyses, and economic analyses examining the effectiveness of after-school PA programs are more prevalent in the literature, when compared to before-school PA programs.